Short answer: Under Islamic rule, those who do not convert to Islam are given the option to pay ‘jizya’– extortion money, as a reminder of their second-class citizenship. Historically, This option was only available for Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians.
The Scripture of Muslims (Qur’an):
Quran 9:29–Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled.
The Traditions of Muhammad (Hadith):
Sahih Muslim 1731–…If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them.
Sunan Abi Dawud 3054— “When he embraces Islam, no jizyah will be levied on him.”
Sahih al-Bukhari 1346–Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) took the Jizyah from the Magians of Hajar.’ .
Bulugh al-Maram 1348— Mu’adh bin Jabal (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) sent me to Yemen and he commanded me to take the Jizyah from everyone who has reached the age of puberty-one Dinar- or its equivalent in Ma’afiri (garments of Yemeni origin).’
Muwatta Malik 17:46–Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to his governors telling them to relieve any people who payed the jizya from paying the jizya if they became Muslims.
Sahih al-Bukhari 3162–Narrated Juwairiya bin Qudama at-Tamimi: We said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab, Jo Chief of the believers! Advise us.” He said, “I advise you to fulfill Allah’s Convention (made with the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your Prophet and the source of the livelihood of your dependents (i.e. the taxes from the Dhimmis.) ”
Sufi saint Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624), letter No. 163–The honour of Islam lies in insulting kufr and kafirs. One who respects the kafirs dishonours the Muslims… The real purpose of levying jiziya on them is to humiliate them to such an extent that they may not be able to dress well and to live in grandeur. They should constantly remain terrified and trembling. It is intended to hold them under contempt and to uphold the honour and might of Islam.
Al-Ghazali (1101)–…the dhimmi[jizya giver] is obliged not to mention Allah or His Apostle…Jews, Christians, and Majians must pay the jizya …on offering up the jizya, the dhimmi must hang his head while the official takes hold of his beard and hits [the dhimmi] on the protruberant bone beneath his ear [i.e., the mandible]…
The Risala of ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani–Ibn Rushd defines it thus: what is taken from the people of disbelief in repayment for their security and sparing their lives while they remain unbelievers. It is derived from jaza’ (repayment) which is exchange, because they receive security in exchange for the money they pay. We offer them security and they offer money.
Ibn Kathir–Allah said, (until they pay the Jizyah), if they do not choose to embrace Islam, (with willing submission), in defeat and subservience, (and feel themselves subdued.), disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated. Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said, “Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and Christians, and if you meet any of them in a road, force them to its narrowest alley.” This is why the Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, these conditions that ensured their continued humiliation, degradation and disgrace.
A Former Muslim Notes:
There are many hadiths and scholars that can be quoted. However, there is not enough space to go into details.
Jizya is forced upon those who do not want to convert from their religions to Islam.
Moreover, Jizya is not just a tax but it is a yearly reminder of second-class citizenship.
All faithful Muslims desire to have Islamic law in their countries. Muslims living in western countries are no exception.
If Sharia was to be implemented on us (Christians). Jizya will be required of us. We will be considered second class citizens.